Welcome to Chemicals 101

What is Chemicals 101 and how does it work? Chemicals 101 is a learning resource for people who purchase and use chemicals.

In almost 30 years in business, we have found that there are some commonly asked questions about chemicals. Our goal is to educate you on various aspects of chemicals. To get started, click on a topic in the list below or search our database. If you have a question that is not addressed on our website, please send it to us and we will respond to you within 24 hours. Additionally, we may add your question and our explanation to the Chemicals 101 list of topics.

Check back often as we will be adding new content regularly. Have a question, just let us know.

What does Process Validation mean in the world of Pharmaceutical Excipients?

There are three generally accepted types of process validations currently being conducted in the pharmaceutical industry. Read More...

Five Year Outlook for the U.S. Pharmaceutical Drug Market

Drug manufacturing in the U.S. currently commands a $160 billion market with slightly more than $30 billion in profit. Industry experts estimate that revenue growth in the past five years has seen a Read More...

IRELAND'S UPCOMING CLAIM TO FAME GOES BEYOND GUINNESS

With the increasing focus on international presence and expansion, biotechs are evaluating new global locations to set up shop. A promising economy puts Ireland in the lead as a strategic hub. Read More...

I'll Take Nitric Acid for $400, Alex.

What is Nitric Acid? In the game of Jeopardy, that would be the correct question to the answer: The chemical impacted by recent changes to D.O.T. packaging regulations. Read More...

BIOLOGICAL BUFFERS MAKE PROTEINS HAPPY

Biological buffers are used in a wide variety of biopharmaceutical processes involving protein-based drugs. The use of buffers protects the protein from changes in pH, which can cause denaturation, aggregation, or fragmentation. Read More...

GMP vs. non-GMP

cGMP refers to the current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations enforced by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Read More...

Liquid Sodium Hydroxide Freezing Point

The freezing point of sodium hydroxide varies depending on the concentration, and the relationship is not linear. Sodium hydroxide forms an approximately 50% by weight saturated solution with water. Read More...

Does Puritan Products use ISPM15 pallets?

The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures, publication number 15 - Regulation of wood packaging material (WPM) in international trade. Read More...

How much do cGMP Chemicals Cost?

As with any pricing process, the price includes direct costs, such as the chemical itself, the packaging, and the labor. It also includes indirect costs, such as overhead. And of course, the price includes profit. Read More...

Why Do I Need a Distributor of Pharmaceutical Raw Materials?

Distribution partners have become an important component in managing risk and cost in the chemical supply chain for many industries. Read More...

Differences between ISO 2008 vs ISO 2015

A revision to the ISO 9001:2008 standard has been in the works almost from the day that it was published. ISO standards go through revision every 3 to 5 years to ensure that they remain relevant and up-to-date. Read More...

Ammonium Hydroxide drums bulge / expand / contract

Bulging or collapsing of ammonium hydroxide (aqua ammonia) drums is normal and no cause for alarm. Aqua ammonia solutions, at 28 – 29% concentration, boil around 85°F at atmospheric pressure. Read More...

What does USP grade mean? What does NF grade mean?

The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Incorporated, (USP) is a scientific nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide. Read More...

ACS vs. Reagent Grade

The ACS Reagent grade designation indicates compliance with specifications found in the most recent edition of Reagent Chemicals published by the American Chemical Society. Currently, that designation applies to 430 reagents. Read More...

What is Cleaning in Place (CIP)?

Clean in place (CIP) is a common cleaning method for removing process residues from bioreactors, fermenters, and other equipment used in biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, and food and beverage manufacturing. Read More...

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